Welcome to the world of the most bizarre ... a star whose gravitational compression
has crushed it down to a size of zero volume, infinite density, infinite temperature,
and an escape velocity that exceeds the speed of light (even though nothing
can move faster than the speed of light). This is a place where all of the laws
of Physics break down, and where matter takes on properties we cannot accurately
describe. Why, even Quantum Physics struggles to express the conditions that
exist inside a Black Hole. I reference Steven
Hawking's page at the beginning of this page, just so you can see that the
most brilliant mind of our present day struggles to adequately explain the interior
of a Black Hole. As we dive into this abyss, let's first begin with a review
of the events that lead up to the formation of a Black Hole. Oh ... since there
are plenty of students around the country who doubt the existence of such strange
objects, I would like to point out that our telescopes have indeed discovered
that Black Holes do exist, and are no longer considered science fiction, but
science fact. If you want to look at Hollywood's idea of a Black Hole, check
out the movie
Black Hole (starring Earnest Borgnine) or Event
Horizon. Both of these movies are scary, although the latter is much more
so than the former, and I have never seen the latter anyway. I chose the darkest
background color for this topic, for obvious reasons.
A Black Hole is cosmic body of extremely intense gravity from which nothing,
not even light, can escape. A black hole is formed in the final stages of the
life of a very massive star. As we have already seen, a star whose mass is less
than 1.4 solar masses is destined to become a White Dwarf, approximately the
size of Earth, and held up against gravity's inward pressure by degenerate electrons.
If the dying star's mass exceeds this Chandrasekhar Limit, it will collapse
further, defeating electron degeneracy and crushing the electrons into protons
to make nothing but neutrons. The star will collapse under gravity's pressure
until the neutrons cannot be physically crushed any closer together, a state
called neutron degeneracy. The collapsed core will be the size of a small city.
Degenerate neutrons can prevent further collapse up to about 3 solar masses,
but above that limiting value, nothing can stop gravity's inward pressure.
A very massive star will live brightly, but for a relatively short time as
a main sequence O or B dwarf. After it has exhausted its nuclear fuel in the
core, and moved through the Red Supergiant stage, the star will have blown much
of its mass away. If the iron dwarf core still has over 3 solar masses at the
final stage, the star will explode in a supernova (at which moment the heavy
elements of the Periodic Table are forged), and the core will collapse beyond
electron and neutron degeneracy ... getting as small as a golf ball, then as
small as a pinhead, then as small as an atomic nucleus, and still get smaller,
and all the while with a mass in excess of 3 Suns. The crushing weight of constituent
matter falling in from all sides compresses the dying star to a point of zero
volume and infinite density called the singularity. Details of the structure
of a Black Hole are calculated from Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
The singularity constitutes the center of a Black Hole and is hidden by the
object's "surface," the Event Horizon.
Inside the Event Horizon the escape velocity (i.e., the velocity required
for matter to escape from the gravitational field of a cosmic object) exceeds
the speed of light, so that not even rays of light can escape into space. The
radius of the Event Horizon is called the Schwarzschild radius, after the German
astronomer Karl Schwarzschild, who in 1916 predicted the existence of collapsed
stellar bodies that emit no radiation. The size of the Schwarzschild radius
is thought to be proportional to the mass of the collapsing star. For a Black
Hole with a mass 10 times as great as that of the Sun, the radius would be 30
km (18.6 miles). Inside the Event Horizon, the laws of Physics break down and
properties of Nature cease to exist in a manner describable. So, as you
can see from the second diagram, a positive change in the mass of a Black Hole
will result in an increase in the radius of the Event Horizon.
Black holes are difficult to observe on account of both their small size and
the fact that they emit no light. They can be "observed," however,
by the effects of their enormous gravitational fields on nearby matter. For
example, if a black hole is a member of a binary star system, matter flowing
into it from its companion becomes intensely heated and then radiates X rays
copiously before entering the event horizon of the black hole and disappearing
forever. Many investigators believe that one of the component stars of the binary
X-ray system Cygnus X-1 is a black hole. Discovered in 1971 in the constellation
Cygnus, this binary consists of a blue supergiant and an invisible companion
star that revolve about one another in a period of 5.6 days. An artist's conception
of Cygnus X-1 and an explanation of how an x-ray telescope detects infalling
matter onto this object are seen below.
If a collapsed star is a neutron star with a solid surface, vast amounts of
energy must be released when in-falling material strikes that surface. In contrast,
if the accreting object is a black hole, only a small amount of energy can escape
before it crosses the event horizon and vanishes forever.
Scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope took an entirely different approach
and observed pulses of ultraviolet light from clumps of hot gas fade and then
disappear as they swirled around a massive, compact object called Cygnus X-1,
long believed to have a candidate black hole.
Hubble, measuring fluctuations in ultraviolet light from gas trapped in orbit
and around the black hole found two examples of a so-called "dying pulse
train," the rapidly decaying, precisely sequential lashes of light from
a hot blob of gas spiraling into the black hole. Without an event horizon, the
blob of gas would have brightened as it crashed onto the surface of the accreting
body. One event had six decaying pulses; the other had seven pulses. The results
are consistent with what astronomers would expect to see if matter were really
falling into a black hole.
(This is such an interesting comparison, for SS Cygni is a White Dwarf star
accreting material from a companion, and these blobs of material brighten at
they crash onto the White Dwarf surface, and do so in periodic fashion as seen
earlier in the White Dwarf page, and also on the front of my t-shirt from the
the past 2 years, astronomers with the Hubble Space Telescope have been following
the movement of a Rogue Black Hole. Apparently a binary star system contains
a Black Hole that is slowly accreting material from its less-evolved companion.
The system perhaps formed within a globular cluster and was kicked out of its
nursery, probably by the explosive force generated when the larger mass star
went Supernova. After a 7 billion year journey through the Milky Way, this system
is now passing the Sun ... but at a safe distance. Scientists are able to track
the path of this pair of stars because it leaves a signature disruption of the
galactic dust in its wake.
Black Hole at the Heart of the Milky Way Galaxy
For quite a while, astronomers predicted the presence of a supermassive Black
Hole in the heart of the Milky Way Galaxy, but its presence has been difficult
to demonstrate. The shifting wavelengths of light by the gravitational influence
of this object, as well as the strong radio emissions were regarded as strong
supportive evidence, but more was needed. Finally, that evidence was discovered.
The ESO image below shows the point that astronomers believe is the exact center
of the Milky Way Galaxy.
Then Dr. Andrea Ghez turned the Keck Telescopes at that point,
and with the aid of Adaptive Optics, she followed the movement of a dozen stars
that were very close to the galactic center. NOVA created a really nice presentation:
Monster of the Milky Way. Click on Monster
to see the first 9:38 of the video on YouTube. But when you click on the image
below-left, you will see a YouTube vide of the motion of the stars around an
In the last 1990s and early years of this century, Dr. Andrea
Ghez, at UCLA, painstakingly photographed the stars at the galactic core. Previous
attempts to study this area of the Milky Way had been limited by distance and
the fuzziness of our atmosphere. But with Adaptive Optics, Ghez was able to
take really sharp photographs of the stars, and do so over a series of days,
weeks, and years. What she observed was the orbital patterns of these stars
around an invisible point. The video clip clearly shows these orbits, and the
tremendous speed of the stars as they orbit the invisible point is the best
evidence yet of a supermassive Black Hole whose mass appears to be around 4
billion Suns worth of matter. Astronomers theorize that the Andromeda Galaxy
might have a Black Hole of 20 billion solar masses in its core. The Earth is
in no danger of beinig swallowed by the Milky Way's Black Hole core, but there
is a different danger.
The drawing below is an artist's idea of what a Quasar looks
like. Astronomers first saw these superbright lights at the most distant reaches
of the Universe ... glowing far more brightly that previously imagined. They
called the objects Quasistellar Objects, or "Quasars" for short. Until
recently, astronomers did not understand them, but now the mystery seems to
be solved. Gigantic spiral galaxies (and no other forms of galaxy) appear to
have supermassive Black Holes in their cores that are ravenously swallowing
entire stars. As the star is swallowed, huge jets of X-ray energy is thrown
out from the Black Hole. The energy of these jets is truly stupendous. Now astronomers
believe that the early galaxies had active Black Hole cores that were consuming
stars during the early turbulent years of the galaxy. Eventually, the central
region of the galaxy would be emptied of stars and gas, and the Quasar would
shut off. This is why only the most distant galaxies exhibit active bursts ...
because these galaxies are also relatively young. The older galaxies that are
nearer to us have cleaned out their central regions and are now quiescent. But
... what would happen if a rogue star were to pass too close to the galactic
core? Would the galaxy reignite its Quasar jets? What would happen if those
jets swept past us?
Other Black Hole types
Some black holes apparently have nonstellar origins. Various astronomers have
speculated that large volumes of interstellar gas collect and collapse into
supermassive black holes at the centers of quasars and peculiar galaxies (e.g.,
galactic systems that appear to be exploding). A mass of gas falling rapidly
into a black hole is estimated to give off more than 100 times as much energy
as is released by the identical amount of mass through nuclear fusion. Accordingly,
the collapse of millions or billions of solar masses of interstellar gas under
gravitational force into a large black hole would account for the enormous energy
output of quasars and certain galactic systems. In 1994 the Hubble Space Telescope
provided conclusive evidence for the existence of a supermassive black hole
at the center of the M87 galaxy. It has a mass equal to two to three billion
Suns but is no larger than the solar system. The black hole's existence can
be strongly inferred from its energetic effects on an envelope of gas swirling
around it at extremely high velocities. In 1998, the Hubble Space Telescope
discovered another Black Hole in the center of galaxy NGC 7052, with an estimated
mass of 300 million Suns. Both massive Black Hole object locations are shown
in the HST images below ... M87 to the left, and NGC 7052 to the right.
One of these most powerful sources of evidence for the existence of these
supermassive black holes comes from the gravitational influence of the tremendous
object's mass upon the radiation that is streaming toward Earth. It is possible
to look at the light heading toward Earth from a galactic core Black Hole and
compare it to the light moving in the opposite direction from the same source.
The amount of shifting of the light energy is the evidence of a huge solar mass
object that occupies a very small space, and the only way an object of such
mass can occupy such a small space is if it were a Black Hole. A Hubble Space
Telescope image of this light shifting from a galactic core Black Hole in M84
is seen below.
The existence of another kind of nonstellar black hole has been proposed by
the British astrophysicist Stephen Hawking. According to Hawking's theory, numerous
tiny primordial black holes, possibly with a mass equal to that of an asteroid
or less, might have been created during the big bang, a state of extremely high
temperatures and density in which the universe is thought to have originated
roughly 10 billion years ago. These so-called mini black holes, unlike the more
massive variety, lose mass over time and disappear. Subatomic particles such
as protons and their antiparticles (i.e., antiprotons) may be created very near
a mini black hole. If a proton and an antiproton escape its gravitational attraction,
they annihilate each other and in so doing generate energy ... energy that they
in effect drain from the black hole. If this process is repeated again and again,
the black hole evaporates, having lost all of its energy and thereby its mass,
since these are equivalent
A ravenous black hole
a Hubble Space Telescope image of an 800-light-year-wide spiral-shaped disk
of dust fueling a massive black hole in the center of galaxy NGC 4261, located
100 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Virgo. By
measuring the speed of gas swirling around the black hole, astronomers calculate
that the object at the center of the disk is 1.2 billion times the mass of our
BLACK HOLES ARE REAL!
Now, to see what happens if we take a virtual trip to a Black Hole, please
move forward to the Black Hole Thought Experiment.
Some other interesting websites that tell more about the story of Black Holes
are found below.
If this material has not grabbed your attention, then go back
to the Smallest Stars Introduction, Star
Introduction, or the Syllabus ...
of just take a nap and hurry back here. Perhaps you feel
ready to take the Star Quiz!
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